Self-limited infantile epilepsy (SeLIE) has distinctive clinical features, and the PRRT2 gene is known to be a considerable genetic cause. There have been a few studies on PRRT2-positive SeLIE only, and anti-seizure medications are often required due to frequent seizures at initial seizure onset. This study aimed to provide clinical information for the early recognition of patients with PRRT2-positive SeLIE and to propose effective anti-seizure medications for seizure control.
We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients diagnosed with SeLIE with genetically confirmed pathogenic variants of PRRT2. In addition, six atypical cases with neonatal-onset seizures and unremitting after three years of age were included to understand the expanded clinical spectrum of PRRT2-related epilepsy. We analyzed the initial presentation, clinical course, and seizure control response to anti-seizure medications.
Patients with PRRT2-related epilepsy had characteristic seizure semiology at initial presentation, including all afebrile, clustered (n=23, 63.9%), short-duration (n=33, 91.7%), and bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (n=26, 72.2%). Genetic analysis revealed that c. 649dupC was the most common variant, and six patients had a 16p11.2 microdeletion containing the PRRT2 gene. One-third of the patients were sporadic cases without a family history of epilepsy or paroxysmal movement disorders. In the 33 patients treated with anti-seizure medications, sodium channel blockers, such as carbamazepine, were the most effective in seizure control.
Our results delineated the clinical characteristics of PRRT2-positive SeLIE, differentiating it from other genetic infantile epilepsies, and discovered the effective anti-seizure medications for initial clustered seizure control. If afebrile bilateral tonic-clonic seizures develop in a normally developed infant as a clustered pattern, PRRT2-positive SeLIE should be considered as a possible diagnosis, and sodium channel blockers should be administered as the first medication for seizure control.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.