The aim of this analytical cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between peri-implantitis and psychological distress, and potentially related/mediating factors such as general health, bruxism and lifestyle factors.
Patients having received dental implants at a private practice in the Netherlands between January 2011 and January 2014 were recalled on a 5-year clinical and radiographic follow-up examination. Presence of peri-implantitis was examined and patients completed questionnaires measuring psychological distress (Symptom Checklist-90), bruxism, general health and lifestyle factors. Associations between the self-reported factors and peri-implantitis were analyzed with univariable and multivariable logistic regression models.
A total of 230 patients (with 347 implants) were included in the analysis. Prevalence of (mild to severe) peri-implantitis was 30% (69 patients). Variables that showed a significant univariable association with peri-implantitis (p<0.10) were: SCL-90 subdomain depression, smoking, current medical treatment and lung problems. In the multivariable regression analysis, only the variable depression was significantly associated with peri-implantitis (p<0.05).
The presence of depressive symptoms is a risk indicator for peri-implantitis. Recognizing the potential negative impact of depressive symptoms may allow for better identification of high risk patients.

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