Psychomotor disadaptation syndrome (PDS) was first described by the Geriatrics School of Dijon (France), three decades ago, under the name «psychomotor regression syndrome». Over time, the original clinical features remained unchanged. However, progress has been made in its pathophysiology understanding and care, hence the new name, PDS, appeared in the 1990s. The PDS is also called sub-cortico-frontal dysfunction syndrome since the 2000s. It corresponds to a decompensation of posture, gait and psychomotor automatisms, related to an alteration of the postural and motor programming, which is a consequence of sub-cortico-frontal lesions. The clinical features of PDS associate backward disequilibrium, nonspecific gait disorders and neurological signs (akinesia, reactional hypertonia, impaired reactive postural responses and protective reactions, etc.). Psychological disorders of PDS are a fear of standing and walking in its acute form (the post-fall syndrome), or a bradyphrenia and anhedonia in its chronic form. The PDS occurrence results from the combination of three factors implicated in the reduction in functional reserves related to the alteration of the sub-cortico-frontal structures: ageing, chronic afflictions and acute situations, which induce a decrease in cerebral blood flow. The PDS management must be multidisciplinary, including the physician, the physiotherapist, the psychologist, nurses and care assistants.