Transplantation represents an important source of hope for the candidates and produces an intense emotional effect. Psychosocial interventions can be helpful in all transplantation stages to better manage this extraordinarily stressful situation. Aim of the work is to verify the effects of the psychosocial interventions on recipients on psychological symptoms, medical adherence and transplanted solid organ functioning.
This work adhered to PRISMA, STROBE, Cochrane and New Castle Ottawa bias scales and it is registered in PROSPERO. Inserting “Transplant” and “Psychological intervention” as key words in PubMed, Psycinfo, Cochrane database resulted 977 studies from 2001 to 2021. A systematic review and metanalyses were processed on nineteen randomized controlled trials and observative prospective cohort studies. The difference between pre- and post- psychosocial intervention assessment on the psychological variables, medical adherence, and organ functioning outcome was processed.
Main findings showed that the psychosocial interventions were effective on depression (0.62; CI: 0.32-0.92) and anxiety on kidney recipients (0.49; CI: 0.17-0.81), and on anxiety on heart recipients, mainly when administrated after the surgery (0.68; CI: 0.30-1.06). Moreover, the findings showed a lack of studies on the effectiveness of the psychosocial intervention on organ functioning.
The work highlighted the effectiveness of the psychosocial interventions on psychological outcome, particularly after the surgery and the need to address the research on the evaluation of the effectiveness of the psychosocial interventions on the organ functioning. The findings suggest to integrate the transplantation procedures with psychosocial interventions considering the different needs of recipients in relation to the specific transplanted organ.

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