For a study, researchers sought to determine whether trauma and PTSD were associated with an increased risk of menstrual irregularities. At the same time, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to dysregulated biological processes, including reproductive system changes that could affect menopausal timing. The data came from the Nurses’ Health Study II, a prospective cohort study of 46,639 women followed for 26 years. In 2008, the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a PTSD symptom screener were used to assess lifetime trauma and PTSD symptoms. The age at menopause and the reason for menopause (natural menopause, gynecologic surgery including hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy [BSO]) were evaluated. After controlling for covariates, Cox proportional hazards models estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of menstrual cessation (naturally or surgically) associated with trauma alone or PTSD symptoms, compared to no trauma. The presence of trauma/PTSD was linked to an earlier cessation of menstruation due to surgery but not to natural menopause. Women with trauma exposure, low and high PTSD symptoms, and no trauma exposure had a higher risk of cessation of menstruation due to surgery (HRtrauma = 1.16, 95%CI 1.07–1.26; HRlow PTSD = 1.25, 95%CI 1.15–1.36; HRhigh PTSD = 1.29, 95% CI 1.17–1.42). Trauma and PTSD symptoms were linked to an increased risk of hysterectomy and BSO surgeries. Women who have experienced trauma or PTSD may be at a higher risk of undergoing common gynecological surgeries before menopause, possibly due to increased clinical indications or gynecological conditions.

Source:www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S002239992200232X