Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and whole body vibration (WBV) interventions are expected to be important strategies for management of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of the study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of PEMF versus WBV on cartilage and subchondral trabecular bone in mice with knee OA (KOA) induced by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Forty 12-week-old male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): Control, OA, PEMF, and WBV. OA was induced (OA, PEMF, and WBV groups) by surgical DMM of right knee joint. Mice in PEMF group received 1 h/day PEMF exposure with 75 Hz, 1.6 mT for 4 weeks, and the WBV group was exposed to WBV for 20 min/day with 5 Hz, 4 mm, 0.3 g peak acceleration for 4 weeks. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histology, and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to evaluate the changes in cartilage and microstructure of trabecular bone. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N) increased, and bone surface/bone volume (BS/BV) decreased by micro-CT analysis in PEMF and WBV groups. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scores in PEMF and WBV groups were significantly lower than in the OA group. Immunohistochemical results showed that PEMF and WBV promoted expressions of Aggrecan, and inhibited expressions of IL-1β, ADAMTS4, and MMP13. Superior results are seen in PEMF group compared with WBV group. Both PEMF and WBV were effective, could delay cartilage degeneration and preserve subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture, and PEMF was found to be superior to WBV. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2020 Bioelectromagnetics Society.© 2020 Bioelectromagnetics Society.