To investigate quality of life (QoL) of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who underwent low anterior resection with protective stoma under neoadjuvant therapy mode, and to explore the changes of QoL of patients from before neoadjuvant therapy to 12 months after stoma reversal. A descriptive case series study was carried out. A retrospective study was performed on patients with mid and low LARC who received complete neoadjuvant long course radiotherapy and chemotherapy, followed by radical low anterior resection (LAR) combined with protective stoma at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2017 to January 2020. Inclusion criteria: (1) patients with rectal MRI assessment of mT3-4b or mN1-2 without distant metastasis (M0) before neoadjuvant therapy; (2) distance from tumor lower margin to the anal verge <12 cm; (3) rectal adenocarcinoma confirmed by biopsy before neoadjuvant therapy; (4) complete cycle of neoadjuvant therapy; (5) patients undergoing radical LAR with sphincter preservation and protective ostomy; (6) patients receiving follow-up for more than 12 months after stoma reversal. Exclusion criteria: (1) patients as grade Ⅳ to Ⅴclassified by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA); (2) patients with multiple primary colorectal cancer; (3) patients with history of other malignant tumors in the past 5 years; (4) patients of emergency surgery; (5) pregnant or lactating women; (6) patients with history of severe mental illness; (7) patients with contraindication of MRI, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgical treatment. A total of 83 patients were enrolled, including 51 males and 28 females with median age of 59 years and mean BMI of (24.4±3.1) kg/m(2). EORTC QLQ-CR29, international erectile function index (IIEF), Wexner constipation score and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score were applied to investigate the QoL of the patients before neoadjuvant therapy, 3 and 12 months after ostomy reversal, including rectal anal function and sexual function. M (P25, P75) was used for the scores of the scale. (1) EORTC QLQ-CR29 score showed that before neoadjuvant therapy, before surgery, 3 months and 12 months after ostomy reversal, anxiety [64.4 (52, 0, 82.5), 75.3 (66.0, 89.5), 82.6 (78.5, 90.0), 83.6 (78.0, 91.0)] and concern about body image [76.8 (66.0, 92.0), 81.1 (76.5, 91.5), 85.5 (82.5, 94.0), 86.1 (82.0, 92.0)] were improved (all <0.01); pelvic pain [5.4 (2.0, 8.0), 5, 0 (2.0, 7.8), 3.9 (1.0, 5.0), 3.0 (1.0, 5.0)], urinary incontinence [15.7 (7.0, 22.0), 11.1 (0, 17.5), 10.0 (0, 17.0), 9.9 (0, 16.0)], impotence [14.3 (4.2, 19.0), 12.2 (0, 16.8), 5.6 (0, 10.0), 5.2 (0.2, 8.0)], urinate [26.4 (13.0, 38.5), 13.9 (0, 20.0), 13.4 (2.5, 21.5), 13.2 (2.0, 20.0)] and mucous bloody stool [4.7 (3.0, 6.0), 2.6 (0, 5.0), 2.2 (0, 5.0), 1.9 (0, 4.0)] were improved as well (all <0.01). The scores fluctuated in the improvement of male sexual function, abdominal pain, dry mouth, worry about body mass change, skin pain and dyspareunia, but the symptoms were significantly improved after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all 0.05). (2) IIEF scale showed that all scores were similar before and after neoadjuvant therapy (all >0.05). (3) Rectal and anal function scale revealed that before neoadjuvant therapy, before operation, 3 months and 12 months after stoma reversal, gas incontinence [3.1 (0, 4.0), 2.3 (0, 4.0), 1.8 (0, 4.0), 1.2 (0, 3.0)] and urgent defecation [7.2 (0, 11.0), 5.2 (0, 11.0), 2.9 (0, 9.0), 1.7 (0, 0)] were improved (all <0.001). In terms of improving incomplete emptying sensation, the symptoms fluctuated, but the symptoms improved significantly after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all <0.05). While the symptoms of assistance with defecation [0 (0, 0), 0.7 (0, 1.0), 0.6 (0, 1.0), 0.7 (0, 1.0)] and defecation failure [0.2 (0, 0), 1.0 (0, 2.0), 0.8 (0, 1.5), 0.8 (0, 1.0)] showed a worsening trend (all <0.001). Stratified analysis was performed on patients with different efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy to compare the changes in QoL before and after neoadjuvant therapy. Patients with less sensitive and more sensitive neoadjuvant therapy showed similar changes in function and symptoms. Patients with less sensitive therapy showed significant improvement in dysuria, urinary incontinence, skin pain and dyspareunia (all <0.05), and the symptom of defecation frequency in more sensitive patients was significantly improved (<0.05). For patients with LARC, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with radical LAR and protective stoma can improve QoL in many aspects. It is noted that patients show a worsening trend in the need for assistance with defecation and in defecation failure.