To evaluate implant survival rate, any complications, and changes of residual alveolar bone height (RABH) using saline or platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) filling after hydraulic transcrestal sinus lifting.
Dental implants were placed after hydraulic transcrestal sinus lifting and the filling of saline (20 patients) or PRF (20 patients). Outcome measurements were implant survival, any complications, and RABH changes. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken and compared preoperatively (T0), immediately postoperatively (T1), at 3 months (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months postoperatively (T4), respectively.
In a total of 40 patients, 45 implants with a mean length of 10.4 ± 0.8 mm were placed in posterior maxilla of a mean RABH of 6.8 ± 1.1 mm. The increase of RABH peaked at T1 and continuous drooping of the sinus membrane was observed but stabilized at T3. Meanwhile, the gradual increase of the radiopacities was found below the lifted sinus membrane. The PRF filling induced the radiographic intrasinus bone gain of 2.6 ± 1.1 mm, which was significantly more than 1.7 ± 1.0 mm of saline filling at T4 (P < 0.05). All the implants were in function with no significant complications over the one-year follow-up period.
In this randomized case-control study, the feasibility of hydraulic transcrestal sinus lifting without bone graft was confirmed and PRF might be a better filler to support the elevated sinus membrane. However, adjunctive bone grafting should still be indicated for cases requiring more than 2 – 3 mm of intrasinus bone gain.

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