Raman spectroscopy (RS) can provide fingerprint-type information on biochemical molecules. RS-based blood plasma analysis of solid tumors has been reported in recent years; however, there are no studies on the use of this analysis for detecting blood diseases. We studied the features of blood plasma in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by RS with the aim of developing a simple blood test for noninvasive DLBCL and CLL detection. We analyzed blood plasma from 33 DLBCL patients, 39 CLL patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) could build two clusters with almost no overlap between DLBCL/CLL and the controls. We used the prediction set to test the model built by OPLS-DA. For the CLL model, the sensitivity was 92.86%, and the specificity was 100%, whereas for the DLBCL model, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 92.31%. We found Raman bands specific to both DLBCL and CLL patients in comparison with the healthy volunteers. Most importantly, we found that the combination of the 1445 cm and 1655 cm Raman shifts could discriminate DLBCL from CLL and even the other solid tumors reported to date. Further analysis of the assignments of 1655 cm also gave us a clue to find potential important variables hemoglobin and serum albumin related with the CLL prognosis. Our exploratory study primarily demonstrated the great potential of developing RS blood plasma analysis as a novel clinical tool for the noninvasive detection of DLBCL and CLL.Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.