Scientific reports 2018 03 148(1) 4476 doi 10.1038/s41598-018-22264-2
Rapid histopathological evaluation of fresh, unfixed human tissue using optical sectioning microscopy would have applications to intraoperative surgical margin assessment. Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation (MUSE) is a low-cost optical sectioning technique using ultraviolet illumination which limits fluorescence excitation to the specimen surface. In this paper, we characterize MUSE using high incident angle, water immersion illumination to improve sectioning. Propidium iodide is used as a nuclear stain and eosin yellow as a counterstain. Histologic features of specimens using MUSE, nonlinear microscopy (NLM) and conventional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology were evaluated by pathologists to assess potential application in Mohs surgery for skin cancer and lumpectomy for breast cancer. MUSE images of basal cell carcinoma showed high correspondence with frozen section H&E histology, suggesting that MUSE may be applicable to Mohs surgery. However, correspondence in breast tissue between MUSE and paraffin embedded H&E histology was limited due to the thicker optical sectioning in MUSE, suggesting that further development is needed for breast surgical applications. We further demonstrate that the transverse image resolution of MUSE is limited by the optical sectioning thickness and use co-registered NLM to quantify the improvement in MUSE optical sectioning from high incident angle water immersion illumination.