Studies evaluating major amputation after initial minor amputation are few with rates of subsequent major amputation ranging from 14% to 35% with limited understanding of associated comorbidities and time to limb loss. The aim of this study is to determine the major amputation rates for patients who had already undergone an initial minor amputation and determine which factors are associated with the need for subsequent major amputation. Using statewide data between 2005 and 2013, patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and combined PAD/DM who had a lower extremity ulcer and who had also undergone a minor amputation were identified. These patients were evaluated for the rate of subsequent major amputation and competing risk Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to study which factors were associated with the risk of subsequent limb loss. The cohort consisted of 11,597 patients (DM, n = 4254; PAD, n = 2142; PAD/DM, n = 5201) with lower extremity ulcers who underwent an initial minor amputation. The rate of any subsequent amputation was highest in patients with PAD/DM (23% vs DM = 17%, PAD = 17%; P = not statistically significant). The rate of subsequent minor amputation was 16% in the PAD/DM versus 15.2% in PAD and 12.2% in patients with DM (P < .001)

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