International migration from Sub-Saharan African countries to the European Union and the United States has significantly increased over the past decades. Although the vast majority of these immigrants are young and healthy people, a minority can be affected by chronic conditions eventually leading to solid organ transplantation (SOT). Importantly, these candidates can bear geographically restricted fungal and parasitic latent infections that can reactivate after the procedure. An appropriate evaluation before transplantation followed by treatment, whenever necessary, is essential to minimize such risk, as covered in the present review. In short, infection due to helminths (Schistosoma spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and intestinal protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia or Cyclospora cayetanensis) can be diagnosed by multiple direct stool examination, serological assays and stool antigen testing. Leishmaniasis can be assessed by means of serology, followed by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) if the former test is positive. Submicroscopic malaria should be ruled out by NAAT. Screening for Histoplasma spp. or Cryptococcus spp. is not routinely indicated. Consultation with an Infectious Diseases specialist is recommended in order to adjust preemptive treatment among Sub-Saharan African SOT candidates and recipients.
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