Few studies assess biologicals such as, omalizumab, mepolizumab, benralizumab, and dupilumab in patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). The reported success rate in these studies differ, and it remains uncertain if there are any biomarkers to predict successful therapy. Our aim was to analyze the therapeutic outcome in a real life setting and to identify predictive biomarkers for successful treatment.
Data from patients with CRSwNP treated with a monoclonal antibody between November 2014 and January 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Improvement in the polyp score and clinical symptoms like nasal obstruction, sense of smell, nasal discharge, and facial pain were evaluated. Other characteristics, including use of nasal or systemic steroids, comorbidities, previous history of sinus surgery, eosinophilia tissue, blood values (eosinophils, total immunoglobulin E, eosinophilic cationic protein, and interleukin 5), and allergic sensitization in serum were also investigated to identify possible predictive biomarkers.
Forty-eight treatments in 29 patients (m/f = 15/14) aged 27-70 years were reviewed. Treatments with mepolizumab showed the best success rates (78.9%), followed by omalizumab (50%) and benralizumab treatments (50%). However, a correlation between biomarkers and treatment success could not be found.
Treatment of CRSwNP with biologicals is a promising option for severe cases not responding to conventional therapy, including difficult-to-treat patients. Predictive biomarkers for a successful treatment could not be identified, but the reduction of eosinophilic cationic protein was linked with the response.

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.