CMAJ open 6(1) E12-E18 doi 10.9778/cmajo.20170059
High hepatitis C cure rates have been observed in registration trials with second-generation direct-acting antivirals. Real-world data also indicate high sustained viral response (SVR) rates. Our objective was to determine real-world SVR rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were treated with second-generation direct-acting antivirals in the first 18 months of their availability in Canada.
Four centres in Calgary contributed their treatment data for a diverse patient population including those who had or had not undergone liver transplantation, those coinfected with HIV and vulnerable populations. We included all patients documented to have started hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals between October 2014 and April 2016, with follow-up through October 2016. We used multivariate analysis to determine independent predictors of treatment failure.
Outcome data were available for 351 patients, of whom 326 (92.9%) achieved an SVR (193/206 [93.7%], 57/59 [96.6%] and 44/51 [86.3%] for genotypes 1a, 1b and 3, respectively, p = 0.2). Independent predictors of not achieving SVR were older age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.00]), male sex (adjusted OR 0.30 [95% CI 0.10-0.89]) and, in patients with genotype 1a infection, history of hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted OR 0.13 [95% CI 0.03-0.53]). In the entire cohort, the presence of cirrhosis, genotype and hepatocellular carcinoma were not associated with a lower SVR rate. There were no differences in SVR rate according to treatment centre, HIV coinfection or liver transplantation. Among patients with genotype 3 infection, a significantly lower SVR rate was observed for those treated outside of standard of care than for those treated within standard of care (33.3% v. 89.6%, p = 0.04). De novo hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 12 patients (3.4%) despite successful direct-acting antiviral therapy.
We report high SVR rates in a real-world diverse cohort of HCV-infected patients treated with second-generation direct-acting antivirals. The results highlight the importance of conducting real-world analyses to elucidate clinical factors associated with poorer outcomes that may not be identified in registration trials.