Degenerative diseases of eye like Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), that affects the central portion of the retina (macula), is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide especially in the elderly population. It is classified mainly as wet and dry form. With expanding knowledge about the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, various treatment strategies are being employed to halt the course of the disease progression. Hitherto, there is no ideal therapy which can cure the disease completely, and targeting the posterior segment of the eye is yet another challenge. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in the management and treatment stratagems (therapies, delivery systems and diagnostic tools) pertaining to AMD viz. molecular targeting, stem cell therapy, nanotechnology and exosomes with special reference to newer technologies like artificial intelligence and 3D printing. Furthermore, the role of diet and nutritional supplements in the prevention and treatment of the disease has also been highlighted. The alarming increase in the said disorder around the globe demands exhaustive research and investigations in the treatment zone. This review thus additionally directs the attention towards the challenges and future perspectives of different treatment approaches for AMD.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.