Aquatic animals are frequently threated by bacterial pathogens. The most economic and efficient protection against bacterial infection are through vaccine immunization. The various serotypes of the pathogens, such as Vibrios, hurdle the development of the vaccines, especially polyvalent vaccines. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant bacterial ghost is a good candidate for multivalent vaccine. By expressing PhiX174 gene E alone or co-expressing the gene E with two genes encoding outer membrane proteins (VP1667 and VP2369) in V. parahaemolyticus, we generated the recombinant V. parahaemolyticus ghosts VPG and rVPGs respectively. Fish immunized with either VPG or rVPG showed increased survival against the infection by either V. parahaemolyticus or V. alginolyticus, with a better protective effect by immunization with rVPG. Our furthermore studies show that rVPG stimulates stronger innate immune responses by increasing the expression of tnfα, il1β, il6, il8 and il10 as well as that of c3b, lyz, and tlr5, the key players linking the innate and adaptive immune responses upon microbial stimulation. In summary, VPG and rVPG can protect zebrafish against the infection from at least two Vibrio species, suggesting its potential value for further aquaculture vaccines development.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.