Anaerobe 2016 12 0843() 75-77 pii 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.004
Actinobaculum schaalii is a rarely reported, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which role as uropathogen is emerging. We report here the case of a 47 year old HIV-1 infected woman presented with five recurrent episodes of obstructive pyelonephritis in the context of multiple renal stones. No bacteria was found until the fifth episode, during which prolonged urinary cultures as well as 16S rDNA sequencing allowed the diagnosis of A. schaalii infection. She had developed a life-threatening condition with severe renal failure. A right nephrectomy was performed and found that the intrarenal stones were attributed to the antiretroviral therapy. The renal parenchyma corresponded to an end-stage renal disease with chronic pyelonephritis without abcesses or granules. The situation improved after six months of amoxicillin therapy.