Imbalances in trace element concentrations in the blood as a result of poor nutrition may affect the development of coronary heart disease. To study the relationship between zinc ion concentration in the peripheral blood and coronary heart disease, we performed multiple logistic regression and hierarchical analyses on blood measurements of 3541 patients. The experimental group comprised 1253 patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and the control group included 2288 healthy patients. The zinc ion concentrations were measured by a color rendering method, and the results were analyzed using SPSS software. Fifteen laboratory quality evaluation samples from the Clinical Laboratory Center of the Chinese Ministry of Health were selected for analysis. The mean values and average bias were calculated. The estimated qualified judgment standard was < 1/2 TEa (the allowable total error for zinc). A hierarchical analysis of risk factors, including smoking, age, sex, and menopause in women, was performed. The results revealed that non-smoking, aging (especially postmenopausal women), and low blood zinc concentrations were independent risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease (P ≤ 0.05, zinc ion concentration less than 13.82 ± 2.91). The findings strongly suggest that decreased zinc ion concentrations in the peripheral blood can be used as an independent risk factor for the prediction of coronary heart disease, especially in older patients, non-smokers, and women, in particular, postmenopausal women.