Journal of autoimmunity 2017 07 0685() 64-77 pii 10.1016/j.jaut.2017.06.012
Inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. The hallmark of inflammation is leukocyte infiltration at disease sites in response to pathogen- or damage-associated chemotactic molecular patterns (PAMPs and MAMPs), which are recognized by a superfamily of seven transmembrane, Gi-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cell surface. Chemotactic GPCRs are composed of two major subfamilies: the classical GPCRs and chemokine GPCRs. Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) belong to the classical chemotactic GPCR subfamily with unique properties that are increasingly appreciated for their expression on diverse host cell types and the capacity to interact with a plethora of chemotactic PAMPs and MAMPs. Three FPRs have been identified in human: FPR1-FPR3, with putative corresponding mouse counterparts. FPR expression was initially described in myeloid cells but subsequently in many non-hematopoietic cells including cancer cells. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that FPRs possess multiple functions in addition to controlling inflammation, and participate in the processes of many pathophysiologic conditions. They are not only critical mediators of myeloid cell trafficking, but are also implicated in tissue repair, angiogenesis and protection against inflammation-associated tumorigenesis. A series recent discoveries have greatly expanded the scope of FPRs in host defense which uncovered the essential participation of FPRs in step-wise trafficking of myeloid cells including neutrophils and dendritic cells (DCs) in host responses to bacterial infection, tissue injury and wound healing. Also of great interest is the FPRs are exploited by malignant cancer cells for their growth, invasion and metastasis. In this article, we review the current understanding of FPRs concerning their expression in a vast array of cell types, their involvement in guiding leukocyte trafficking in pathophysiological conditions, and their capacity to promote the differentiation of immune cells, their participation in tumor-associated inflammation and cancer progression. The close association of FPRs with human diseases and cancer indicates their potential as targets for the development of therapeutics.