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Regulation of tumour related genes by dynamic epigenetic alteration at enhancer regions in gastric epithelial cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus.

Regulation of tumour related genes by dynamic epigenetic alteration at enhancer regions in gastric epithelial cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus.
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Okabe A, Funata S, Matsusaka K, Namba H, Fukuyo M, Rahmutulla B, Oshima M, Iwama A, Fukayama M, Kaneda A,


Okabe A, Funata S, Matsusaka K, Namba H, Fukuyo M, Rahmutulla B, Oshima M, Iwama A, Fukayama M, Kaneda A, (click to view)

Okabe A, Funata S, Matsusaka K, Namba H, Fukuyo M, Rahmutulla B, Oshima M, Iwama A, Fukayama M, Kaneda A,

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Scientific reports 2017 08 117(1) 7924 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-08370-7
Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with tumours such as Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancer. We previously showed that EBV(+) gastric cancer presents an extremely high-methylation epigenotype and this aberrant DNA methylation causes silencing of multiple tumour suppressor genes. However, the mechanisms that drive EBV infection-mediated tumorigenesis, including other epigenomic alteration, remain unclear. We analysed epigenetic alterations induced by EBV infection especially at enhancer regions, to elucidate their contribution to tumorigenesis. We performed ChIP sequencing on H3K4me3, H3K4me1, H3K27ac, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3 in gastric epithelial cells infected or not with EBV. We showed that repressive marks were redistributed after EBV infection, resulting in aberrant enhancer activation and repression. Enhancer dysfunction led to the activation of pathways related to cancer hallmarks (e.g., resisting cell death, disrupting cellular energetics, inducing invasion, evading growth suppressors, sustaining proliferative signalling, angiogenesis, and tumour-promoting inflammation) and inactivation of tumour suppressive pathways. Deregulation of cancer-related genes in EBV-infected gastric epithelial cells was also observed in clinical EBV(+) gastric cancer specimens. Our analysis showed that epigenetic alteration associated with EBV-infection may contribute to tumorigenesis through enhancer activation and repression.

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