A negative relationship between intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) and axial length was found, which may help explain why myopia with long axial length was a protective factor for development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of this study is to further assess the relationship between the aqueous humor levels of interlukin (IL)-8, IL-10, VEGFA, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), basic fibroblast growth factor, VEGFB, and placental growth factor (PLGF) and axial length in eyes with DR.
Retrospective, single-center, unmasked study.
Patients with age-related cataract and with/without DR who visited the Department of Ophthalmology at the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University were enrolled. The level of IL-8, IL-10, VEGFA, VCAM-1, and basic fibroblast growth factor were measured by cytometric bead array, and VEGFB and PLGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Axial length was measured by biometry.
Totally 65 eyes of 65 patients were enrolled, including 14 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 35 patients with age-related cataract as control. In the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy group, the aqueous level of PLGF was negatively correlated with axial length (r = -0.576, P = 0.031), whereas the aqueous levels of IL-10 (r = 0.533, P = 0.049) and VCAM-1 (r = 0.566, P = 0.035) were positively correlated with axial length. In the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group, all cytokines did not significantly correlate with axial length.
Among patients with diabetic retinopathy, we further found that aqueous levels of PLGF were negatively correlated with axial length, whereas VCAM-1 and IL-10 were positively correlated with axial length. These findings may suggest that these cytokines play a role in the development of DR, and further explain the relationship between the axial length and DR.