This study shows that the Little is known about the relationship between dietary intake of choline, which is a major dietary precursor for gut microbiome-derived trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the general population. The present study aims to explore the relationship between dietary choline intake and DM in the US adult population.

Cross-sectional data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 of 8621 individuals aged 20 years or older. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for DM of each quartile category of energy-adjusted choline intakes. The restricted cubic spline model was used for the dose–response analysis. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff value of choline intake for predicting DM.

A linear dose–response relationship between dietary choline intake and the odds of DM was found after adjustment for multiple potential confounding factors. With the lowest quartile category of choline as the reference, the multivariable-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of the second, third, and highest quartile categories.

Reference link-