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Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and chronic periodontitis.

Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and chronic periodontitis.
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Pólvora TLS, Nobre ÁVV, Tirapelli C, Taba M, Macedo LD, Santana RC, Pozzetto B, Lourenço AG, Motta ACF,


Pólvora TLS, Nobre ÁVV, Tirapelli C, Taba M, Macedo LD, Santana RC, Pozzetto B, Lourenço AG, Motta ACF, (click to view)

Pólvora TLS, Nobre ÁVV, Tirapelli C, Taba M, Macedo LD, Santana RC, Pozzetto B, Lourenço AG, Motta ACF,

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Expert review of clinical immunology 2018 04 12() 1-13 doi 10.1080/1744666X.2018.1459571

Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Current studies show that, even in the era of antiretroviral therapies, HIV-1 infection is associated with more severe and frequent refractory chronic periodontitis. Areas covered: This review, based on a systematic analysis of the literature, intends to provide an update on factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV-1-infected patients, including local immunosuppression, oral microbial factors, systemic inflammation, salivary markers, and the role of gingival tissue as a possible reservoir of HIV-1. Expert commentary: The therapeutic revolution of ART made HIV-1 infection a chronic controllable disease, reduced HIV-1 mortality rate, restored at least partially the immune response and dramatically increased life expectancy of HIV-1-infected patients. Despite all these positive aspects, chronic periodontitis assumes an important role in the HIV-1 infection status for activating systemic inflammation favoring viral replication and influencing HIV-1 status, and also acting as a possible reservoir of HIV-1. All these issues still need to be clarified and validated, but have important clinical implications that certainly will benefit the diagnosis and management of chronic periodontitis in HIV-1-infected patients, and also contributes to HIV-1 eradication.

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