A total of 338 children and adolescents (178 females) with a mean age 13.0±2.8 years were examined. Apolipoproteins (AI, AII, B, CII, CIII, and E) were measured via human apolipoprotein magnetic bead panel. Applanation tonometry determined pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ultrasound imaging measured carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Dual X-ray absorptiometry measured total body fat percent. Linear regression models were adjusted for Tanner Stage, sex, and race with further adjustments for BF%. Linear regression models also examined the interaction between Tanner Stage and apolipoproteins.
There was a significant positive association between PWV and apolipoproteins: AI (0.015m/sec/10μg/mL [0.005, 0.026], p=0.003), AII (0.036m/sec/10μg/mL [0.017, 0.056], P < .001), B (0.009m/sec/10μg/mL [0.002, 0.016], p=0.012), E (0.158m/sec/10μg/mL [0.080, 0.235], p<0.001), and CIII:CII ratio (0.033/μg/mL [0.014, 0.052], p<0.001). After adding BF% to the models, PWV remained positively associated with higher levels of apolipoproteins: AI, AII, B, E, and CIII:CII ratio. Both with and without the adjustment for BF%, there were no significant associations between any apolipoprotein and cIMT. There were no significant interactions between Tanner Stage and apolipoproteins.
These findings suggest that higher levels of apolipoprotein AII, E, and CIII:CII ratio are associated with increased arterial stiffness in children and adolescents, both with and without adjusting for percent body fat. These specific apolipoproteins may be useful as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.
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