Immunotherapy has exhibited great potential in cancer treatment. However, for immunosuppressive tumors such as pancreatic cancer, immunotherapy is far from satisfactory. PI3K-γ and colony stimulating factor-1/colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1/CSF-1R) pathways are involved in the infiltration and polarization of immunosuppressive cells including M2 tumor associated macrophages (M2 TAMs), causing a suppressive tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in pancreatic cancer. Herein, a M2 TAM targeting nanomicelle was developed to co-deliver PI3K-γ inhibitor NVP-BEZ 235 and CSF-1R-siRNA for specific TAMs reprogramming and antitumor immune responses activation. M2 TAM targeting peptide M2pep was modified on a mixed micelle, which was potent to co-encapsulate BEZ 235 and CSF-1R siRNA. The formulated nanomicelle increased M2 TAM targeting efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with single pathway blockade, dual blockade of PI3k-γ and CSF-1R demonstrated enhanced TAM remodeling effects by reducing M2 TAM level and elevating M1 TAM level, and also suppressed tumor infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Consequently, the M2 TAM targeting reprogramming system activated antitumor immune responses and achieved enhanced anti-pancreatic tumor effects via PI3K-γ blockade and downregulation of CSF-1R. The M2pep modified nanomicelle provides a promising method for co-delivery of siRNA and small molecule inhibitor to M2 TAM. Dual inhibition of both PI3K-γ and CSF-1R can remodel TIME and activate antitumor immune responses synergistically, providing an alternative approach for pancreatic cancer treatment.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.