To describe the use and outcome of percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL) for removal of urethral and bladder stones in dogs and cats.
Retrospective case series.
Sixty-eight client-owned dogs and cats.
Records were reviewed and analyzed for dogs and cats that underwent PCCL between January 2012 and December 2017. Signalment, clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging data, procedure time, use of lithotripsy, biopsy, perioperative and immediate postoperative complications, hospitalization times, stone composition, and urine culture results were recorded. Owners were contacted by phone or email 3 weeks after the procedure. Follow-up communications with the owner and referring veterinarian were also recorded.
Seventy percutaneous cystolithotomies were performed in 59 dogs and nine cats. The median duration of the procedure was 95 minutes (45-420), and lithotripsy was required in 3% (2/70) of PCCL. Complications during the procedure were reported in one case. In eighty-three percent of procedures (58/70), animals were discharged within 24 hours postoperative. Twenty-four percent (16/68) of animals had minor complications (lower urinary tract signs), and one dog had a major complication (surgical wound dehiscence) during the 3 weeks after the operation. Long-term follow-up revealed stone recurrence in 21% of cases followed more than a year after the procedure (7/33).
Percutaneous cystolithotomy allowed removal of bladder and urethral stones with rapid postoperative recovery and few major perioperative or short-term postoperative complications.
Percutaneous cystolithotomy provides an attractive minimally invasive surgical alternative for removal of lower urinary tract stones in small animals.

© 2020 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.