Saussurea involucrata,a traditional Chinese medicinal material,is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with cold-dampness blockage syndrome,cold pain in lower abdomen,and menstrual irregularities. However,due to the specific habitat,low natural reproduction rate,slow growth,and overexploitation,it is at the high risk of extinction. S. involucrata cells can be obtained through callus culture,suspension culture,and hairy root culture. This study highlighted the influences of reactor type,culture system,precursor,elicitor type, and light wavelength on the suspension culture of S. involucrate cells. The chemical components of S. involucrata cells mainly include phenylpropanoids,flavonoids,lignans,and steroids,among which phenylpropanoids are the most abundant. S. involucrata cells have multiple pharmacological activities of anti-inflammation,analgesia,activating blood and resolving stasis,immunoregulation,increasing bone density,lowering blood lipids,anti-hypoxia,anti-exercise fatigue,anti-radiation,anti-obesity,and anti-oxidation. Moreover,it has the potential of treating aplastic anemia. This study reviews the cell culture technologies,chemical components,and pharmacological activities of S. involucrata cells,laying a basis for the further research,development,and utilization.