Despite widespread evidence that air pollution is carcinogenic, there is little evidence from low-middle income countries, especially related to childhood malignancies. We examined the role of traffic related pollution on lymphohematopoietic malignancies among under-14 s in Sao Paulo.
All incident cases between 2002 and 2011 were collected from a population-based registry. Exposures were assigned on residential address at diagnosis via traffic density database (for the year 2008) and a satellite derived NO land use regression model (averaged between 1997 and 2011). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated via Poisson Regression adjusted by age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES), with additional stratification by SES.
A positive association between traffic and NO with some lymphohematopoietic malignancies was observed with the degree of effect differing by SES. For example, lymphoid leukemia IRRs in the lower SES group were 1.21 (95 % CI: 1.06, 1.39) for traffic density and 1.38 (95 % CI: 1.13, 1.68) for NO. In the higher group they were 1.06 (95 % CI: 1.00, 1.14) and 1.37 (95 % CI: 1.16, 1.62).
NO and traffic density were associated with Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia among children in São Paulo. Differing IRRs by gender and SES group indicate differences in underlying risk and/or exposure profiles.

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