This is the first reported case of a primary lung cancer originating from indium lung. In this report, we describe a 46-year-old man with interstitial pneumonia-type indium lung diagnosed 16 years ago. The initial symptom was left chest pain, and computed tomography showed a mass adjacent to the aorta with left pleural effusion. Specimens collected using video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed an adenocarcinoma with a high expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (cT4N0M1a stage IVA). Although the lesions showed a remarkable aggressive nature, the patient benefited from pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death 1, which was used as second-line therapy for 2 years.
It is important for clinicians to be aware of lung cancer development in indium-exposed workers or in patients with indium lung, as this could have an aggressive behavior. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors is an option even in patients with interstitial pneumonia-type indium lung.