Resveratrol has been reported to have beneficial effects on sepsis by regulating the inflammatory response. However, it remains unclear if resveratrol plays a role in the development of endotoxin tolerance. Treatment with resveratrol in macrophages stimulated with primary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in the increased production of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by a 2 dose of LPS (by 74.5 ± 12.9% and 63.4 ± 12%, respectively, compared to untreated cells, P<0.05). This effect was inhibited by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and STO609, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-kinase (CaMKK) inhibitor. Resveratrol diminished the expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) by prolonging the exposure of cells to LPS (by 60.8 ± 16.3% and 70.3 ± 18.1%, respectively, compared to LPS only). The effect of resveratrol on the LPS-induced expression of IRAK-M and SHIP1 was inhibited by compound C or STO609. After a 2 dose of LPS, resveratrol increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in endotoxin tolerant macrophages. In vivo systemic administration of resveratrol prevented a significant increase in mortality rate by cecal ligation and puncture in LPS-induced endotoxin-tolerant mice. These results indicate that resveratrol induces AMPK activation through the Ca/CaMKKβ pathway and suppresses the development of endotoxin tolerance by inhibiting LPS-induced expression of IRAK-M and SHIP1.
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