Defects in translation lead to changes in the expression of proteins that can serve as drivers of cancer formation. Here, we show that cytosolic NAD synthesis plays an essential role in ovarian cancer by regulating translation and maintaining protein homeostasis. Expression of NMNAT-2, a cytosolic NAD synthase, is highly upregulated in ovarian cancers. NMNAT-2 supports the catalytic activity of the mono(ADP-ribosyl) transferase (MART) PARP-16, which mono(ADP-ribosyl)ates (MARylates) ribosomal proteins. Depletion of NMNAT-2 or PARP-16 leads to inhibition of MARylation, increased polysome association and enhanced translation of specific mRNAs, aggregation of their translated protein products, and reduced growth of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, MARylation of the ribosomal proteins, such as RPL24 d RPS6, inhibits polysome assembly by stabilizing eIF6 binding to ribosomes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ribosome MARylation promotes protein homeostasis in cancers by fine-tuning the levels of protein synthesis and preventing toxic protein aggregation.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.