The type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a key component of innate immune response upon invasion of foreign pathogens. It is also under precise control to prevent excessive upregulation and undesired inflammation cascade. In the present study, we report that Riok3, an atypical kinase, negatively regulates retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) sensing-induced type I IFN signaling. Riok3 deficiency selectively inhibits RNA viral replication in vitro, resulting from an upregulated type I IFN pathway. Mice with myeloid-specific Riok3 knockout also show a more robust induction of type I IFN upon RNA virus infection and are more resistant to RNA virus-induced pathogenesis. Mechanistically, Riok3 recruits and interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM40, leading to the degradation of RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA5) via K48- and K27-linked ubiquitination. Collectively, our data reveal the mechanism that Riok3 employs to be a negative regulator of antiviral innate immunity.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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