To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of functional decline during hospitalisation and its relationship with postdischarge outcomes in very old patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) hospitalisation.
Prospective cohort study between 1 October 2014 and 31 March 2016.
A physician-initiated, multicentre study of consecutive patients admitted for ADHF in 19 hospitals throughout Japan.
Among 3555 patients hospitalised for ADHF (median age (IQR), 80 (71-86) years; 1572 (44%) women), functional decline during the index hospitalisation occurred in 528 patients (15%).
The primary outcome measure was a composite of all-cause death or heart failure (HF) hospitalisation after discharge. The secondary outcome measures were all-cause death, HF hospitalisation, and a composite of all-cause death or all-cause hospitalisation.
The independent risk factors for functional decline included age ≥80 years (OR 2.71; 95% CI 2.09 to 3.51), female (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.67), prior stroke (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.19), dementia (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.74 to 2.95), ambulatory before admission (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.29 to 2.35), elevated body temperature (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.31 to 2.79), New York Heart Association class III or IV on admission (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.22), decreased albumin levels (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.34), hyponatraemia (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.03) and renal dysfunction (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.98), after multivariable adjustment. The cumulative 1-year incidence of the primary outcome in the functional decline group was significantly higher than that in the no functional decline group (50% vs 31%, log-rank p<0.001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the higher risk of the functional decline group relative to the no functional decline group remained significant (adjusted HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.71; p<0.001).
Independent risk factors of functional decline in very old patients with ADHF were related to both frailty and severity of HF. Functional decline during ADHF hospitalisation was associated with unfavourable postdischarge outcomes.
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