Surgical site infection following joint replacement surgery is still a significant complication, resulting in repeated surgery, prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended postoperative hospital stay, periprosthetic joint infection, and increased morbidity and mortality. This review discusses the risk factors associated with surgical site infection.
The patient-related factors include sex, age, body mass index (BMI), obesity, nutritional status, comorbidities, primary diagnosis, living habits, and scores of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system, etc. Surgery-related factors involve preoperative skin preparation, prolonged duration of surgery, one-stage bilateral joint replacement surgery, blood loss, glove changes, anti-microbial prophylaxis, topical anti-bacterial preparations, wound management, postoperative hematoma, etc. Those risk factors are detailed in the review.
Preventive measures must be taken from multiple perspectives to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection after joint replacement surgery.

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