This study aimed to assess early mortality (within 1 and 3 months) in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and to identify risk factors associated with early mortality.
We extracted data of PCNSL patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) dataset by using the SEER*Stat 8.3.5 software.
A total of 8091 patients with PCNSL were enrolled in this study. Among them, 57.94% were male, and 42.06% were female. The mean age was 59.50±16.11 years. Death within 1 and 3 months was 10.67% and 29.16%, respectively. Over the past 20 years, early mortality has declined significantly. The common causes of early death were non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other infectious and parasitic diseases, including HIV. Our results showed that gender, age at diagnosis, ethnicity, histological subtype, marital status, tumor location, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy were associated with early mortality within 1 or 3 months.
The early mortality has declined significantly over the past 20 years. Risk factors for early mortality within 1 or 3 months after PCNSL diagnosis included advanced age, male gender, black race, frontal lobe, unmarried, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, no surgery, no chemotherapy, and no radiotherapy.

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