PloS one 2017 10 1212(10) e0185193 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0185193
Gallstones and kidney stones are known complications of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Risk factors have been insufficiently studied and explanatory studies date back up to 30 years. It remains unclear, whether improved treatment options also influenced risk factors for these complications.
Identifying risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in IBD patients.
Using data from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study we assessed associations of diseases characteristics with gallstones and kidney stones in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Out of 2323 IBD patients, 104 (7.8%) Crohn’s disease (CD) and 38 (3.8%) ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed with gallstones. Significant risk factors for gallstones were diagnosis of CD, age at diagnosis, disease activity and duration, NSAID intake, extra-intestinal manifestations and intestinal surgery. Kidney stones were described in 61 (4.6%) CD and 30 (3.0%) UC patients. Male gender, disease activity, intestinal surgery, NSAID usage and reduced physical activity were significant risk factors. Hospitalization was associated with gallstones and kidney stones. The presence of gallstones increased the risk for kidney stones (OR 4.87, p<0.001). CONCLUSION
The diagnosis of CD, intestinal surgery, prolonged NSAID use, disease activity and duration and bowel stenosis were significantly associated with cholecystonephrolithiasis in IBD.