Increasing evidence shows that environmental factors in childhood play a role in development of irreversible airway obstruction. We evaluated early-life and preschool-age risk factors for irreversible airway obstruction in adolescence after bronchiolitis in infancy.
This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during prospective long-term follow-up of our post-bronchiolitis cohort. Risk factor data were collected during hospitalisation and on follow-up visits at 5-7 and 10-13 years of ages. Lung function was measured from 103 participants with impulse oscillometry at 5-7 years of age and from 89 participants with flow-volume spirometry at 10-13 years of age.
Asthma diagnosis at <12 months of age showed a significant association with irreversible airway obstruction at 10-13 years of age independently from current asthma. Irreversible airway obstruction was less frequent in children with variant than wild genotype of the Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) rs4986790, but the significance was lost in logistic regression adjusted for current asthma and weight status. Higher post-bronchodilator respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz and lower baseline and post-bronchodilator reactance at 5 Hz by impulse oscillometry at 5-7 years of age were associated with irreversible airway obstruction at 10-13 years of age.
Asthma diagnosis during the first living year and worse lung function at preschool age increased the risk for irreversible airway obstruction at 10-13 years of age after bronchiolitis. TLR4 rs4986790 polymorphism may be protective for development of irreversible airway obstruction after bronchiolitis.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.