To investigate the risk factors for orthostatic hypertension in children.
Eighty children with OHT were enrolled in the OHT group, and 51 healthy children served as the control group. Demographic characteristics, clinical history, daily water intake, nightly sleep duration, the results of the standing test and complete blood count were recorded and compared between the two groups. The risk factors for pediatric OHT were determined by logistic regression analysis.
Body mass index (BMI) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) were higher in the OHT group than in healthy children, whereas daily water intake and sleep duration were lower. Logistic regression analysis showed that if a child suffered from overweight, suffered from obesity, had a daily water intake less than 800 ml, or had a RDW that was increased by 1%, the risk of OHT would be increased by 6.069 times (95% CI: 1.375 to 26.783, P < 0.05), 7.482 times (95% CI 1.835 to 30.515, P < 0.01), 4.027 times (95% CI: 1.443 to 11.241, P < 0.01) or 4.008 times (95% CI 1.698 to 9.461, P < 0.01), respectively. However, if the sleep duration was increased by 1 hour, the risk of developing OHT would be decreased by 74.3% (95% CI 54.6% to 85.4%, P < .01).
Increased BMI, inadequate water intake and sleep duration, and elevated RDW were identified as risk factors for pediatric OHT.

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