Total hip replacement (THR) with a cemented polished taper-slip (PTS) femoral stem has excellent long-term results but is associated with a higher postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) risk compared with composite beam stems. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with PFF revision following THR with PTS stems.
In a retrospective cohort study, 299,019 primary THRs using PTS stems from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man (NJR) were included, with a median follow-up of 5.2 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.1 to 8.2 years). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of PFF revision was estimated for each variable using multivariable Cox survival regression analysis.
Of 299,019 THR cases, 1,055 underwent revision for PFF at a median time of 3.1 years (IQR, 1.0 to 6.1 years). The mean age (and standard deviation) was 72 ± 9.7 years, 64.3% (192,365 patients) were female, and 82.6% (247,126 patients) had an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class of 1 or 2. Variables associated with increased PFF were increasing age (HR, 1.02 per year), intraoperative fracture (HR, 2.57 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.42 to 4.66]), ovaloid (HR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.22 to 3.16]) and round cross-sectional shapes (HR, 9.58 [95% CI, 2.29 to 40.12]), increasing stem offset (HR, 1.07 per millimeter), increasing head size (HR, 1.04 per millimeter), THR performed from 2012 to 2016 (HR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.18 to 1.78]), cobalt-chromium stem material (HR, 6.7 [95% CI, 3.0 to 15.4]), and cobalt-chromium stems with low-viscosity cement (HR, 22.88 [95% CI, 9.90 to 52.85]). Variables associated with a decreased risk of PFF revision were female sex (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45 to 0.59]), increasing stem length (HR, 0.97 per millimeter), and a ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing (HR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.36 to 0.85]).
Increased risk of PFF revision was associated with PTS stems that are short, have high offset, are used with large femoral heads, are made of cobalt-chromium, or have ovaloid or round cross-sectional shapes. Large increases in PFF risk were associated with cobalt-chromium stems used with low-viscosity cement. Further study is required to confirm causation.
Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.