Aspiration pneumonia (AP) has been recognized as one of the most common postoperative complications after hip surgery in elderly. The objective of the present study was to evaluate risk for postoperative complications of AP in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures.We recruited 426 patients (age 84.9 ± 7.4 years) with a history of hip surgery carried out at Toyama Municipal Hospital. AP occurred in 18 out of 426 cases (4.23%). Statistical test has found significant differences in age, gender, serum albumin level, and cognitive impairment, between AP and non-AP groups. Subsequently multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the risk factors for AP, including age, gender, serum albumin, cognitive impairment, and activities of daily living (ADL). Adjusted odds ratio showed significant differences in age, gender, and serum albumin, whereas no significant differences were found in cognitive impairment and ADL.This study suggested that serum albumin seemed to be a risk factor for AP but were necessary to assess under adjustment of confounding factors, including age and gender. Monitoring serum albumin level seemed to be important for the postoperative management of AP, especially in elderly patients receiving surgery of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.