We aim to investigate the risk factors influencing the growth of residual nodule (RN) in surgical patients with adenocarcinoma presenting as multifocal ground-glass nodules (GGNs).
From January 2014 to June 2018, we enrolled 238 patients with multiple GGNs in a retrospective review. Patients were categorized into growth group 63 (26.5%), and non-growth group 175 (73.5%). The median follow-up time was 28.2 months (range, 6.3-73.0 months). To obtain the time of RN growth and find the risk factors for growth, data such as age, gender, history of smoking, history of malignancy, type of surgery, pathology and radiological characteristics were analyzed to use Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis.
The median growth time of RN was 56.0 months (95% CI, 45.0-67.0 months) in all 238 patients. Roundness (HR 4.62, 95% CI 2.20-9.68), part-solid nodule (CTR ≥ 50%) (HR 4.39, 95% CI 2.29-8.45), vascular convergence sign (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.36-3.96) of RN, and age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) were independent predictors of further nodule growth. However, radiological characteristics and pathology of domain tumour (DT) cannot be used as indicators to predict RN growth.
RN showed an indolent growth pattern in surgical patients with multifocal GGNs. RN with a higher roundness, presence of vascular convergence sign, more solid component, and in the elder was likely to grow. However, the growth of RN showed no association with the radiological features and pathology of DT.

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