We identified non-pregnant, premenopausal women diagnosed with uncomplicated, lower tract UTI and prescribed an oral antibiotic with activity against common uropathogens. We used propensity score-weighted Kaplan-Meier functions to estimate 30-day risks and risk differences (RD) for pyelonephritis and UTI-related antibiotic prescription switch.
Of 1 140 602 patients, the distribution of index prescriptions was 44% fluoroquinolones (non-first-line), 28% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (first-line), 24% nitrofurantoin (first-line), 3% narrow-spectrum β-lactams (non-first-line), 1% broad-spectrum β-lactams (non-first-line), and 1% amoxicillin/ampicillin (non-recommended). Compared to the risk of pyelonephritis for nitrofurantoin (0.3%), risks were higher for TMP/SMX (RD, 0.2%; 95% CI, 0.2%-0.2%) and broad-spectrum β-lactams (RD, 0.2%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.4%). Compared to the risk of prescription switch for nitrofurantoin (12.7%), the risk was higher for TMP/SMX (RD 1.6%; 95% CI 1.3%-1.7%) but similar for broad-spectrum β-lactams (RD -0.7%; 95% CI -1.4%-0.1%) and narrow-spectrum β-lactams (RD -0.3%; 95% CI -0.8% - 0.2%). Subgroup analyses suggest TMP/SMX treatment failure may be due in part to increasing uropathogen resistance over time.
The risk of treatment failure differed by antibiotic agent, with higher risk associated with TMP/SMX versus nitrofurantoin, and lower or similar risk associated with broad- versus narrow-spectrum β-lactams. Given serious safety warnings for fluoroquinolones, these results suggest that nitrofurantoin may be preferable as the first-line agent for outpatient treatment of uncomplicated UTI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.