Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 2017 10 1253(1) 31-37 doi 10.1080/00365521.2017.1386794
Mutation carriers (Mut+) in DNA mismatch repair genes are predisposed to cancer of various organs and to adenomatous polyps; however, they may remain asymptomatic and cancer or polyp-free for several years. We purposed to analyse the clinical follow-up of individuals carrying constitutional mutations in the MLH1, MSH2 or MSH6 genes who were unaffected by benign polyps or malignant tumours at diagnosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Mut + subjects (n.81) were members of Lynch syndromes in whom mutations were detected between 1993 and 2015; all were asymptomatic at diagnosis. They were informed of the cancer risk and surveillance was suggested. As controls, 113 nongene carriers (Mut-) in the same Lynch families were identified.
About one-fourth of the mutation carriers developed polyps, mostly adenomas; polyps were less (12%, p < .05) in Mut - subjects, and hyperplastic lesions were the prevalent histology. More polyps were detected in MLH1 vs. MSH2 mutation carriers. In Mut+, 21 malignant tumours developed in 14 carriers vs. 4 tumours in 3 patients among Mut- (p < .001). Tumours were mostly of the Lynch spectrum; however, three glioblastomas were developed, together with neoplasms of various organs (duodenum, thyroid, skin, lung and cervix). Mean age of tumour occurrence was 43.0 years in Mut + vs. 53.0 among Mut-. CONCLUSIONS
Cancer developed more often in Mut+, with no consistent difference between MLH1 and MSH2 carriers. More polyps (mostly adenomas) were detected in MLH1 carriers. The majority (13 of 21) of malignant tumours occurred in organs for which there is no recommended surveillance, and were lethal in three patients.