A hyperglycemic crisis episode (HCE) signifies poor control of diabetes and may increase the risk of dementia via microvascular and macrovascular injuries.
We conducted this study to clarify this issue, which remains unclear.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database, we identified 9,466 diabetic patients with HCE and the identical number of diabetic patients without HCE who were matched by age and sex for this nationwide population-based cohort study. The risk of dementia was compared between the 2 cohorts by following up until 2014. Investigation of independent predictors of dementia was also done.
In the overall analysis, the risk of dementia between the 2 cohorts was not different. However, stratified analyses showed that patients with HCE had a higher risk of subsequent dementia in the age subgroup of 45-54 and 55-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-3.6, and AOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, respectively). In the overall analysis, older age, female sex, ≥3 HCEs, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, and head injury were independent predictors.
HCE increased the risk of dementia in diabetic patients aged 45-64 years. Dementia was predicted by ≥3 HCEs. Prevention of recurrent HCE, control of comorbidities, and close follow-up of cognitive decline and dementia are suggested in patients with HCE.

© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.