Little is known about the etiology of pulmonary carcinoids (PC). Associations with other types of cancer may identify shared risk factors but results from earlier studies were inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between PC and other primary malignancies for identifying risk factors.
A query of the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry generated data about patients diagnosed with PC from 1989 to 2018. The occurrence of second primary malignancies was evaluated separately for year 1 and years 2-30. The expected numbers of second primary malignancies were calculated using incidence reference tables, controlling for age, gender and period. Confidence intervals (95 % CI) for the ratio between observed and expected numbers (SIR: standardized incidence ratio) were calculated using Poisson distributions.
In a total of 2933 patients with PC, 425 consecutive primary malignancies were observed in 376 patients. Concomitant diagnoses in the first year mainly comprised lung (n = 59) and renal cancer (n = 14). Metachronous malignancies beyond the first year were most common for breast (n = 50), colorectal (n = 41), prostate (n = 32), and lung cancer (n = 29). Beyond year 1, the overall risk of second primary cancer in patients with PC was similar to the risk within the general population (n = 256, SIR = 1.12, 95 % CI 0.99-1.27). Increased risks were observed for soft tissue sarcoma (n = 5, SIR = 3.52, 95 % CI 1.14-8.22) and GEPNET (n = 4, SIR = 4.30, 95 % CI 1.17-11.01).
Concomitant diagnosis of PC with other cancers is common, reflecting surveillance diagnostics. Apart from MEN-1 family history, no shared risk factors could be identified.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.