High altitude medicine & biology 2017 11 10() doi 10.1089/ham.2017.0036
Moldobaeva, Marina S., Anastasiya V. Vinogradova, and Marina K. Esenamanova. Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus development in the native population of low- and high-altitude regions of Kyrgyzstan: Finnish Diabetes Risc Score questionnaire results. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.
The number of patients with diabetes is steadily growing, but likely only half of all cases are ever identified. The Kyrgyz, native inhabitants of Central Asia, live in the mountainous area and have a particular lifestyle and nutrition. However, the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in our population is not well defined. Therefore, we aimed at determining the risk of T2DM development in the Kyrgyz population residing in low- and high-altitude (HAlt) regions by using the Finnish Diabetes Risc Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire.
We included in the study 3190 randomly selected participants, including 1780 low-altitude (LAlt) residents (Chu region, 500-1200 m) and 1410 HAlt residents (Naryn region, 2000-4500 m), among whom there were 1207 men and 1983 women. Assessment of T2DM development was conducted by using the FINDRISC questionnaire and risk stratification was performed by region of residency, gender, and age.
An irregular intake of vegetables and fruits, increased waist circumference (WC), and increased body mass index (BMI) were identified as leading risk factors of T2DM development in native residents of Chu and Naryn regions of Kyrgyzstan. The 10-year risk stratification of T2DM development revealed the absence of a very high-risk group; high-risk status was more frequently identified among residents of the LAlt Chu district (4.7% of women and 2.1% of men), as compared with the HAlt population (1.9% of women and 1% of men) (p = 0.0018 for women and p = 0.09 for men).
In the Kyrgyz population, a 10-year high risk of T2DM development is greater among residents of LAlts as compared with HAlts, irrespective of gender. No very high-risk group was detected in residents of low or HAlts. The leading composites of FINDRISC score are increased WC and BMI, possibly due to irregular intake of vegetables and fruits that are dependent on the altitude of residence and age.