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Risk Stratification in Multinodular Goiter: A Retrospective Review of Sonographic Features, Histopathological Results, and Cancer Risk.

Risk Stratification in Multinodular Goiter: A Retrospective Review of Sonographic Features, Histopathological Results, and Cancer Risk.
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Kelly BS, Govender P, Jeffers M, Kinsella J, Gibney J, Sherlock M, Torreggiani WC,


Kelly BS, Govender P, Jeffers M, Kinsella J, Gibney J, Sherlock M, Torreggiani WC, (click to view)

Kelly BS, Govender P, Jeffers M, Kinsella J, Gibney J, Sherlock M, Torreggiani WC,

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Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l’Association canadienne des radiologistes 2017 08 2168(4) 425-430 pii 10.1016/j.carj.2017.03.002

Abstract
PURPOSE
In the management of thyroid nodules, although the potential for malignancy exists, there is also the potential for overtreatment of subclinical disease. Although the TI-RADS (Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System) system outlines a risk stratification score based on suspicious ultrasound findings, it has not been universally accepted. Many TI-RADS 2 or 3 patients proceed to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), potentially unnecessarily. The aim of the study was to identify whether lesions within a multinodular goiter (MNG) without suspicious features can be followed with ultrasound rather than biopsied as is recommended for single nodules.

METHODS
Pathology records were retrospectively analysed for proven MNGs over a 5-year period. A total of 293 cases were identified. FNAB, prebiopsy ultrasound images, and reports were identified for each case. Images were reviewed and assessed for sonographically suspicious criteria guided by TI-RADS. Logistic regression was applied to determine if any sonographic features were associated with neoplasia. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

RESULTS
Of 293 samples, 14 (4.7%) were neoplastic. Having no suspicious features conferred an average risk of 0.0339 (95% confidence interval: 0.02831-0.04087) of neoplasia. Risk of neoplasm significantly increased by having 1 and >1 suspicious feature (P < .001). Regarding cytological results, of 237 patients with Thy-2 cytology, 159 were followed up and 8 had a neoplasm. CONCLUSION
Ultrasound can be used to estimate risk of neoplasia in MNG. In the absence of suspicious radiological findings, follow-up with ultrasound rather than FNAB may be appropriate in patients who have a low clinical suspicion for neoplasia.

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