The present complexity of non–small cell lung rests in numerous histologies, targetable mutations, and gene expression, all of which are required information for structuring treatment and calculating prognosis. Obtaining this information from small-volume biopsies can provide unique obstacles, and researchers are investigating RNA analysis to do so. RNA analysis is already being employed in other cancers, such as breast and thyroid cancer.

Researchers conducted a literature analysis and found that adequate material may be recovered from RNA specimens taken through endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration and that this has potential diagnostic and prognostic use.