Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an independent risk factor for lung cancer development. Accelerated cell senescence, induced by oxidative stress and inflammation, is a common pathogenic determinant of both COPD and lung cancer. The post transcriptional regulation of genes involved in these processes is finely regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which regulate mRNA turnover, subcellular localization, splicing and translation. Multiple pro-inflammatory mediators (including cytokines, chemokines, proteins, growth factors and others), responsible of lung microenvironment alteration, are regulated by RBPs. Several mouse models have shown the implication of RBPs in multiple mechanisms that sustain chronic inflammation and neoplastic transformation. However, further studies are required to clarify the role of RBPs in the pathogenic mechanisms shared by lung cancer and COPD, in order to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This review will therefore focus on the studies collectively indicating the role of RBPs in oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as common pathogenic mechanisms shared by lung cancer and COPD.