Cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a descriptive pathology that in absence of co-morbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia initially characterized by cardiac stiffness, myocardial fibrosis, ventricular hypertrophy, and remodeling. These abnormalities further contribute to diastolic dysfunctions followed by systolic dysfunctions and eventually results in clinical heart failure (HF). The clinical outcomes associated with HF are considerably worse in patients with diabetes. The complexity of the pathogenesis and clinical features of diabetic cardiomyopathy raises serious questions in developing a therapeutic strategy to manage cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Despite extensive research in the past decade the compelling approaches to manage and treat diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), a serine-threonine kinase, often referred to as cellular “metabolic master switch”. During the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a plethora of evidence demonstrate the beneficial role of AMPK on cardio-metabolic abnormalities including altered substrate utilization, impaired cardiac insulin metabolic signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, myocardial inflammation, increased accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, impaired cardiac calcium handling, maladaptive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endoplasmic reticulum stress, myocardial fibrosis, ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac apoptosis, and impaired autophagy. Therefore, in this review, we have summarized the findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies and provided a collective overview of the pathophysiological mechanism and the regulatory role of AMPK on cardio-metabolic abnormalities during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.